How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers – The interface between the Earth’s surface and space. Karma line shown at 100 km (62 mi). Layers of the atmosphere are drawn to scale, while objects within them, such as the International Space Station, are not.

Outer space, commonly referred to as outer space, is the space beyond the Earth and its atmosphere, as well as between celestial bodies. Space is not completely empty, it is almost a perfect vacuum

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

Contains small amounts of particles, mainly hydrogen and helium plasmas, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust and cosmic rays. The initial temperature of the outer universe, determined by the Big Bang background radiation, is 2.7 Kelvin (−270 °C; −455 °F).

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Intergalactic plasma is thought to make up about half of the baryonic (ordinary) matter in the universe, with less than one hydrogen atom per cubic meter and millions of kelvins.

Local aggregates of matter condensed into stars and galaxies. Studies show that 90% of the mass in most galaxies is in an unknown form called dark matter, which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces.

Observations suggest that most of the mass-energy in the observable universe is dark energy, a poorly understood form of vacuum energy.

Intergalactic space occupies most of the volume of the universe, but both galaxies and star systems are almost completely depleted of empty space.

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Space does not begin at a certain height above the Earth’s surface. Line of Karma, 100 km (62 km) above sea level,

Commonly used as the beginning of space in space contracts and space records. The framework of international outer space law was established by the Outer Space Treaty, which entered into force in 1967. on October 10. This treaty excludes any claim to national sovereignty and allows all countries to freely explore space. Despite the development of UN resolutions on the peaceful use of outer space, anti-satellite weapons have been tested in Earth orbit.

Humans began the physical exploration of space in the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights. This was followed by manned rocket flights and manned Earth orbit, first achieved by the Soviet Union’s Yuri Gagarin in 1961. Due to the high cost of reaching space, human spaceflight was limited to low Earth orbit and the Moon. On the other hand, unmanned spacecraft have reached every known planet in the solar system.

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

Space poses a challenge to human exploration due to the dangers of vacuum and radiation. Microgravity also negatively affects human physiology, causing both muscle atrophy and bone loss. In addition to these health and virus concerns, the economic cost of sending objects, including humans, into space is very high.

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It is an artist’s conception of the metrical expansion of space, where the volume of the universe is reflected in circular segments at each time interval. The left shows a rapid inflation from the initial state, followed by a more even expansion to each day shown on the right.

Part of Hubble’s Ultra Deep Field image showing a typical region of the universe containing galaxies interrupted by the deep vacuum. Given the finite speed of light, this view covers the last 13 billion years of the history of the outer universe.

According to the Big Bang theory, the very early universe around 13.8 billion years ago was extremely hot and cold.

Which expanded rapidly. About 380,000 years later, the universe had cooled enough for protons and electrons to combine in a furious, so-called recombination epoch. When this happened, matter and energy were separated, allowing photons to move freely through the ever-expanding space.

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The material left over from the original expansion has since undergone gravitational collapse to form stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects, leaving behind a deep vacuum that forms what is now known as space.

The daily shape of the universe has been determined by measurements of the cosmic microwave background using satellites such as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropic Probe. These observations suggest that the spatial geometry of the observable universe is “flat,” meaning that photons on parallel paths remain parallel at a point as they travel through space at the boundary of the observable universe, apart from local gravity.

A flat universe, combined with the measured mass density of the universe and the accelerating expansion of the universe, shows that space has a non-zero vacuum energy called dark energy.

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

Calculations show that the average daily energy density of the universe is 5.9 protons per cubic meter, including dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter (ordinary matter made up of atoms). Atoms make up only 4.6% of the total ergy dose, or the dose of one proton per four cubic meters.

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The length of space is obviously not uniform. it ranges from the relatively high density of galaxies, including very high-density galactic structures such as planets, stars, and black holes, to conditions in vast voids that are much less dense, at least for visible matter.

Unlike matter and dark matter, dark energy does not appear to condense into galaxies; although dark energy may make up most of the mass-energy of the universe, the effect of dark energy is 5 orders of magnitude smaller than the gravitational effect of matter and dark matter in the Milky Way.

Space is the closest known approximation to a perfect vacuum. It is virtually frictionless, allowing stars, planets and moons to move freely in their ideal orbits after their initial formation phase. The deep vacuum of intergalactic space is devoid of matter because it contains several hydrogen atoms per cubic meter.

The low density of matter in space means that electromagnetic radiation can travel long distances without scattering; the mean free path of a photon in intergalactic space is about 10.

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However, extinction, which is the absorption and scattering of photons by dust and gas, is an important factor in galactic and intergalactic astronomy.

Stars, planets, and moons maintain their atmospheres by gravitational pull. The atmosphere has no clearly defined upper limit. Atmospheric gas density gradually decreases with distance from the object until it becomes indistinguishable from space.

Compared to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) standard pressure definition of 100,000 Pa. Above this height, the isotropic gas pressure quickly becomes negligible compared to the solar radiation pressure and the dynamical pressure of the solar wind. The thermosphere has a large degree of pressure, temperature, and composition within this range and fluctuates greatly due to space weather.

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

The temperature of space is measured by the kinetic activity of the gas, just as it is on Earth. The temperature of cosmic radiation is different from the kinetic temperature of the gas, which means that the gas and radiation are not in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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The entire observable universe is filled with photons produced during the Big Bang, known as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). (There is probably a correspondingly large number of neutrinos, called the cosmic neutrino background.

Gas temperatures in space can vary greatly. For example, the temperature of the Boomerang Nebula is 1 K.

Magnetic fields are found in space around almost every class of celestial object. Star formation in spiral galaxies can produce a small-scale dynamo, producing a rotating magnetic field strength of about 5–10 μG. The Davis-Grestein effect results in the formation of elongated dust grains that are aligned with the galactic magnetic field, resulting in weak optical polarization. This was used to show that several nearby galaxies have ordered magnetic fields. Magnetohydrodynamic processes in active elliptical galaxies produce their characteristic jets and radio blobs. Non-thermal radio sources are detected from the most distant high-z sources, indicating the magnitude of the magnetic fields.

Outside of the protective atmosphere and magnetic field, there are few barriers to subatomic particles known as cosmic rays traversing space. The energy of these particles varies from about 10

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EV, with about 87% protons, 12% helium nuclei, and 1% heavier nuclei. In the high energy range, the electron flux is only about 1% of the proton flux.

According to astronauts like Don Pettit, there is a burning/metallic smell in space that clings to their suits and equipment, similar to an arc welding torch.

See also: Astrobiology, Astrobotany, Plants in space, Animals in space, Effects of spaceflight on the human body, Bioastronomy and weightlessness

How Many Miles Is 280 Kilometers

Because of the threat of vacuum, astronauts must wear a pressurized space suit when they are outside Earth and outside their spacecraft.

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Despite the virulence of the virus, several life forms have been found that can withstand the extreme conditions of space for long periods of time. In 2007, lichen species transported by ESA BIOPAN were affected.

A strain of Bacillus subtilis survived 559 days when exposed to low Earth orbit or a simulated Martian virus.

The lithopanspermia hypothesis suggests that rocks ejected into space from life-sustaining planets could successfully transfer life forms to another habitable world.

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