How Many Days Till September 11 2021
How Many Days Till September 11 2021 – The iconic twin towers of the World Trade Center in midtown Manhattan are a triumph of human imagination and will. Completed in 1973, the towers are 110 stories each, accommodating 50,000 workers and 200,000 visitors daily in 10 million square feet of space. They are the center of the bustling Financial District, a top tourist attraction and a symbol of the progress and future of New York and America. On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center was the target of a massive terrorist attack that claimed nearly 3,000 lives. The disaster also radically changed the skyline of New York, destroying the twin columns of glass and steel that over the years had symbolized the city itself.
The 1939 New York World’s Fair featured an exhibit called the World Trade Center, dedicated to the concept of “world peace through trade.” Seven years later, one of the Exposition’s organizers, Winthrop W. Aldrich, headed a new government agency with the proposed goal of establishing a permanent commercial exposition based in New York. However, market research showed that the city would gain more from modernizing its ports, and the plan was soon scrapped.
How Many Days Till September 11 2021
Aldrich’s nephew, David Rockefeller, never lost sight of the idea. The grandson of Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller, David decided to revive the concept of the World Trade Center as the core of a revitalized lower Manhattan. In May 1959, Rockefeller formed the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association, which planned a $250 million complex near the Fulton Fish Market on the East River, including one 70-story office tower and several smaller buildings.
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For the resources and power to carry out the project, Rockefeller turned to the Port Authority of New York. The Port Authority was chartered in 1921 by New York and New Jersey to build and operate all terminals and shipping facilities within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty.
In 1960, after the construction of the Lincoln Tunnel and the George Washington Bridge, the Port Authority rapidly expanded its influence with 5,000 employees and more than $1 billion in freight and transportation structures, led by its influential director, Austin J. Tobin.
The Port Authority had just agreed to take over and operate the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in New Jersey, the PATH (Port Authority Trans Hudson) train, built in 1908. The PATH terminal is on the west side of Lower Manhattan, and Tobin’s team decided to moved the proposed layout of the mall from east to west, combining the two projects.
An area bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty and West streets, known as “Radio Row” for its many consumer electronics stores, had to be demolished to build the mall. After a bitter legal battle with representatives of Radio Row merchants, the Port Authority won the right to proceed with its plan.
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At the time, the Port Authority decided that the mall should replace the 1,250-foot-tall Empire State Building, built in 1931, as the tallest building in the world. To fulfill the request of the port authorities, architect Minoru Yamasaki designed two towers with 110 floors each.
Instead of the traditional stacked glass and steel box construction of many New York skyscrapers, Yamasaki worked with structural engineers to come up with a revolutionary design: two hollow tubes supported by closely spaced steel columns wrapped in aluminum. Floor trusses connect this exterior steel grid to the central steel core of the building. In this way, the “skin” of the building will be strong enough that no internal columns are needed to hold it up.
Construction began in February 1967 after the Port Authority faced criticism about the safety and viability of the towers from a number of influential figures, including real estate magnate (and owner of the Empire State Building) Lawrence Wien. Vienna even ran an ad
Plans were made to guard against such an accident – which occurred in July 1945 with a smaller aircraft at Empire State – and the towers were designed to be safe in the event of a collision with a fully loaded 707 (the largest aircraft in existence at the time). . Presumably, such an aircraft would have to disappear into the fog for such an event to occur; A terrorist attack was never imagined.
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Because the soil in lower Manhattan was largely landfilled, engineers had to dig 70 feet down to reach the bedrock. Excavators dug a three-foot-wide trench down into the bedrock, and when the dirt and rock were removed, they were replaced with fertilizer: a mixture of water and bentonite, a type of clay that expands when wet to plug any hole along the edge of dug out. Workers then lowered a 22-ton, seven-story steel cage into the trench and filled it with concrete using a long pipe. As the concrete flows, it displaces the bentonite slurry.
In constructing more than 150 of these manure pit segments, workers were limited to an area two blocks wide and four blocks long. Called a “tub,” it was used to seal the towers’ basements and keep Hudson River water out of the foundation.
A total of one million cubic meters of landfill had to be removed. The Port Authority used this landfill to create a $90 million land development that would become Battery Park City. To assemble the building’s steel frame, engineers brought in Australian-made “kangaroo” cranes, self-propelled cranes powered by diesel engines that can lift themselves as the building grows.
At the end of construction, these cranes had to be dismantled and lowered by elevator. When the towers are completed, each will have 97 passenger elevators capable of carrying loads of up to 10,000 pounds at speeds of up to 1,600 feet per minute. In total, the towers are constructed of more than 200,000 pieces of steel manufactured throughout the country, 3,000 miles of electrical cables, 425,000 cubic yards of concrete, 40,000 doors, 43,600 windows and six acres of marble.
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The last piece of steel was put into place in the North Tower (One World Trade Center) on December 23, 1970; the south tower (Two World Trade Center) was completed the following July. Construction continued until April 1973, when the five-acre outdoor plaza, topped by a 25-foot bronze sculpture by Fritz Koenig, was completed. At the official ribbon-cutting ceremony on April 4, Governor Nelson Rockefeller (David’s brother) triumphantly announced, “It’s not often that we see a dream come true. Today we have.”
At 1,360 feet, the World Trade Center towers were the tallest buildings in the world for less than a year; they were soon surpassed by the Sears Tower in Chicago. However, the towers hide an incomparable mystery. They have inspired incredible stunts, starting in August 1974 when Philippe Petit walked a high wire between two towers.
In May 1977, George Willig earned the nickname “the human fly” by climbing to the top of the south tower using homemade climbing devices. The Port Authority liked these stunts because they liked the towers to the public and made them look like giant toys. They worked to turn the towers into an attraction, adding the Windows on the World restaurant, which opened on the 107th floor of the north tower in April 1976 and was an instant hit.
By 1983, the World Trade Center’s revenue had jumped to $204 million, and the space was in high demand. Smaller importer-exporters are now being pushed out by rising rents, making way for larger businesses.
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New York City police officers inspect the damage caused by a truck bomb that exploded in the parking garage of the World Trade Center in New York in 1993, killing six people and injuring more than 1,000. (Credit: Richard Drew/AP/REX/ Shutterstock)
The first major test of the mall’s structural integrity came on February 26, 1993, when a bomb with a destructive power equal to 2,200 pounds of TNT exploded in the basement parking garage on the second floor of the north tower. The explosion killed six people, injured more than 1,000 others and caused an estimated $600 million in damage. Six Islamic extremists were tried and convicted in connection with the plot.
The towers reopened 20 days after the bombing with new security measures, including parking access restrictions and electronic ID badges for building tenants. Over the next eight years, the Port Authority spent a total of $700 million on renovations, with safety improvements such as battery-powered stairwell lights and a separate emergency command center in each building. Mayor Rudy Giuliani created a high-tech emergency operations command center called “The Bunker” at 7 World Trade Center, a 47-story office building adjacent to the towers.
In July 2001, just two months before the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Port Authority agreed to lease the Twin Towers to Larry Silverstein, a New York City developer. Silverstein agreed to pay the equivalent of $3.2 billion over the next 99 years. At the time, more than 99 percent of the 10.4 million square feet controlled by the Port Authority were occupied.
September 11 Attacks: What Happened On 9/11?
The impact of the two planes
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