How Many Days Is 575 Hours
How Many Days Is 575 Hours – Efficacy of an intervention to reduce sitting time and improve health in research office workers: a three-arm randomized controlled trial 2022; 378 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/-2021-069288 (published 17 August 2022) Cite this as: 2022;378:e069288 Associated editorial The importance of sitting less and moving more
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention during daily sitting, with and without a height-adjustable desk, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of both interventions and the effects of both interventions on physical behavior and physical, biochemical, psychological, and work-related health—and performance results.
How Many Days Is 575 Hours
Participants are 756 desk-based staff from specific offices, departments or communities in 78 clusters, including two councils in Leicester, three in Greater Manchester and one in Liverpool.
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Intervention clusters were randomized to one of three conditions: SMART Work and Life (SWAL) intervention, SWAL intervention with adjustable desk (SWAL plus desk), or control (usual practice).
Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure was daily sitting time assessed by accelerometry at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were accelerometer-assessed sitting, prolonged sitting, standing, and stepping time, and self-reported physical activity on all active days, work hours, work days, and nonwork days. lifestyle behaviors, musculoskeletal problems, cardiometabolic health markers, work-related health and performance, fatigue and psychological measures.
Results Participants had a mean age of 44.7 years, 72.4% (n=547) were female, and 74.9% (n=566) were white. Daily sitting time at 12 months was significantly lower in the intervention groups (SWAL -22.2 min/day, 95% confidence interval -38.8 to -5.7 min/day, P = 0.003; SWAL plus desk – 63.7 min/day, -80.1 to -47.4 min/day, P<0.001) compared to the control group. The SWAL plus desk intervention was found to be more effective than SWAL in changing sitting time (-41.7 min/day, -56.3 to -27.0 min/day, P < 0.001). For standing time for both intervention groups and the SWAL plus desk group, favorable differences in sitting and extended sitting time were observed across work hours and work days at the three- and 12-month follow-ups. Both intervention groups were associated with small improvements in stress, well-being, and strength, and the SWAL plus desk group was associated with improvements in lower extremity pain, social norms, and support for sitting and standing at work. was liq.
Conclusions Both the SWAL and the SWAL plus desk were associated with reduced sitting time, although the addition of a height-adjustable desk was found to be three times more effective.
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Data collected from accelerometer-based devices indicate that ambulatory adults spend approximately 9-10 hours per day (60%) sedentary (ie, sitting during waking hours). % of their working day and 66% of their waking day are sitting.4 This is alarming given the rapidly accumulating evidence that excessive sitting time is associated with: all-cause and cardiovascular mortality5678, increased risk of type 2 diabetes, 679 cardiovascular disease, 6710 incident endometrial, colon and lung cancer, 71112 anxiety, 1314 depression , 151617 and poor quality of life.1718 Together, these evidences highlight the potential impact of sedentary behavior on population health; Thus, physical activity data and many national guidelines now include recommendations to reduce or regularly stop sedentary time, 19202122, including for the first time the World Health Organization’s instructions. 23
With high levels of sedentary behavior among office workers, interventions to reduce sitting time at work have emerged.2425 Although these interventions have shown promising results, particularly with adjustable desks , the quality of the evaluation of these interventions was considered very low. Lack of unbiased cluster-randomized controlled trials, small sample sizes (most studies included 20–50 participants), lack of longer follow-up, and lack of valid and reliable estimates of sedentary behavior are low.24 This highlights the need for restrictions. larger cluster randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. Two recent large randomized controlled trials evaluated multicomponent interventions to reduce sedentary behavior involving a height-adjustable desk and eight hours of sedentary work in favor of the intervention compared with control at 12-month follow-up. differences of 45 minutes per day were observed2627; however, both of these randomized controlled trials focused primarily on reductions in sedentary time at work and had no effect on nonwork behaviors. Evidence suggests that office workers are also highly inactive outside of work, 28 and thus expanding workplace interventions to address sedentary behavior both during work and at other times may have a significant health impact. In addition, multi-component interventions were conducted, including the provision of height-adjustable desks, and therefore whether and to what extent behavior change was possible without environmental change. prevented from realizing that additional benefits could be obtained. This is important knowledge for organizations investing in employee well-being in the workplace, as providing height-adjustable desks involves costs.
To address these research gaps in evaluation methods and intervention design, we built on our previous multicomponent intervention, Stand More AT Work (SMArT Work), which was shown to successfully reduce sedentary work time over 12 months.26 Based on results. Thanks to the SMarT Work randomized controlled trial, process evaluation, and stakeholder input, we created the SMART Work and Life (SWAL) intervention.29 This intervention focuses on a full-day approach to reducing sitting time and is designed to be delivered by trained workers in the workplace. target organization : this is an important step compared to previous trials, because the study allows to evaluate the actual implementation of the intervention. To assess the effectiveness of the SWAL intervention (with and without height-adjustable desks), we conducted a large multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial in a sample of desk-based workers from one of the UK’s largest employers, local authorities. The primary objective was to determine whether SWAL with a height-adjustable desk and delivered by workplace foremen was associated with changes in daily sitting time (i.e. on and off the job) compared to 12 months of usual practice (control group). was up. If both interventions were found to be effective compared to a control group, a secondary objective was to determine whether one intervention was more effective than the other. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, physical health, mental health and work-related health to contribute to the evidence base on the extent to which sedentary behavior affects health, well-being and work-related outcomes. and performance included.
This three-arm randomized controlled trial with follow-up of 3, 12, and 24 months was reported for modified studies according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement for Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials (CONSORT) Statement 30 and the CONSORT 2021 Statement . to the covid-19 pandemic.31 The trial protocol has been published29 (see Table 1 for changes to the protocol during the study). Clusters of participants from designated offices, departments, or teams were randomized to one of three interventions: SWAL without adjustable desks, SWAL with adjustable desks, and usual practice (control). Randomisation was stratified by local authority area (Leicester, Liverpool and Greater Manchester) and cluster size (<10 vs ≥10 participants). The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown in the UK in March 2020 necessitated changes to the protocol announced. 24-month follow-up was excluded, with data for the primary outcome to be collected at 12-month follow-up and secondary outcomes to be reported at three and 12 months. All 12-month data has been collected through February 2020, and 24-month data collection has not yet begun.
Effectiveness Of An Intervention For Reducing Sitting Time And Improving Health In Office Workers: Three Arm Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial
Six councils agreed to take part: two in Leicester, one in Liverpool and three in Greater Manchester. We tailored recruitment methods to each council, but in all councils the study was advertised via the staff intranet, with some councils also displaying posters and adding newsletters. In three panels, participants were invited to participate in a 45-minute presentation about the study. Participants self-reported if they worked for a council and were ≥18 years old, if they spent most of their day sitting (“How much of your day do you spend sitting?” reporting), if employed, had the right to study. at least 60% full-time, able to give informed consent and able to walk without assistance. We excluded those who were pregnant, used a height-adjustable desk, could not provide consent, or could not communicate in English. Clusters consist of people in a shared office space and may be from different teams and departments or members of the same team but working in different offices.
Recruitment took place from February 2018 to January 2019. Baseline data was collected from May 2018 to February 2019, three-month data from September 2018 to June 2019, and 12-month data from June 2019 to February 2020. All participants provided information
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