How Does The Author Describe The Global Conveyor Belt
How Does The Author Describe The Global Conveyor Belt – Great Britain and Ireland can be a little cold, but they are surprisingly warm in latitude. These regions have ocean currents to thank for that warm climate. Known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), it now acts like a conveyor belt, pulling warm water from the Gulf to the east coast of North America and then diverting it towards Europe.
But, according to the BBC’s Victoria Gill, two new studies say the AMOC is the weakest it has been for more than 1,600 years, with the biggest changes occurring in the last 150 years.
How Does The Author Describe The Global Conveyor Belt
, which discusses the history of the AMOC. The researchers studied the size of the grains in the sediment cores on the sea floor. According to Andrea Thompson from Scientific American, the stronger the current, the more dirt particles can move, allowing researchers to visualize changes in current strength according to the size of the current. The team also looked for tiny fossil critters, called foraminifera of “forams,” to understand ocean temperatures. Since some species thrive in warm water while others prefer colder temperatures, researchers can use species that are thermodynamically sensitive to early ocean temperatures.
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The team used modern climate models and a century of sea surface temperature to study changes in the AMOC. The results of both studies suggest that the AMOC is weakening, but when the change began is debatable.
As Summer K. Praetorius writes in Nature, a study of sediment cores suggests that the AMOC began to weaken in 1850, the beginning of the industrial age. She also pointed out that the change coincided with the end of the Little Ice Age, the climatic collapse that lasted from the 1300s to the 1850s. As the climate warms, more fresh water can flow into the oceans, influencing the AMOC.
However, the ocean temperature model suggests that the AMOC flow has weakened since the mid-twentieth century as a result of human-induced climate warming. As Thompson notes, however, this record has not been traced back to the sediment study.
Although they differ in time, both studies show a similar pattern of current decline, weakening by about 15 to 20 percent in the past 150 years. “We think it’s very important that all the evidence comes together,” David Thornalley of University College London told Thompson.
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“What is common to both periods of weak AMOC — the end of the Little Ice Age and the last few decades — is that they were both periods of warming and warming,” Thornalley said in a press release. “Warming and warming are projected to continue in the future due to the release of carbon dioxide.”
“Climate models [currently] do not predict that [the AMOC shutdown] will happen in the future,” Thornalley told The Guardian’s Damian Carrington, “the problem is how do we make sure it won’t happen? One of these indicators is probability. very low, but high impact.”
Murray Roberts, who studies ocean temperature at the University of Edinburgh, told Gill that even if changes in the AMOC did not affect the overall climate, these changes could damage the sensitive Atlantic ecosystem.
“The world has some of the oldest and most impressive cold-water and deep-sea sponge landscapes in the world,” he said. “These delicate ecosystems depend on ocean currents to provide them with food and disperse their offspring. Ocean waters are like highways that spread larvae throughout the ocean, and we know that these ecosystems are very vulnerable. Earth’s past climate changes.”
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The researchers expect that future changes in the global climate will cause a further reduction in the retreat of the Atlantic. But there is still much more to be learned from these complex methods. As Alexander Robinson, one of the authors of the sea temperature, told Carrington: “We are only beginning to understand the consequences of this unprecedented – but potentially disruptive – process.”
Jason Daley is a writer based in Madison, Wisconsin specializing in natural history, science, travel and the environment. Physical oceanographer Young-Oh Kwon appears to be relying on a combination of ocean data and climate models to understand the strength of the Atlantic ocean circulation. (Photo by Daniel Hentz, © Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute)
Young-Oh Kwon joined in 2006 with a strong background in climate modeling, and a special interest in marine biodiversity. It was the perfect combination for the study of the Atlantic Ocean Circulation (AMOC) – a belt of circulation of warm water in the north and cooler water in the south of the Atlantic Ocean. We caught up with Kwon to get his perspective on the state of the critical ocean circulation system and the changes we may see in the future.
The AMOC is the driver of how heat is distributed over the ocean, and one of the primary components that governs Earth’s climate. This means that if the AMOC changes, our climate will be affected. For example, if the system strengthens or weakens and therefore more or less warm water reaches the North Atlantic than usual, this can lead to unusual weather patterns or storms. My latest study suggests that if the AMOC strengthens and pushes warm water north, a prolonged high pressure system in the North Atlantic and northern Europe could cause drought.
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Long-term forecast information can and should come from the ocean. So it is important to study how the great ocean circulation system works.
AMOC activity is difficult to track, according to many ocean scientists. Why, and more importantly, what can be done about it?
We know that the AMOC is very difficult for climate models, which are not good at simulating things like eddies. Therefore, climate models need to be significantly improved in order to predict what will happen 100 years from now. One important question now is: How can we improve the models?
That’s where observational data comes in. Instruments such as the OSNAP-style optical probes measure the ocean to help us understand the key components that drive the AMOC and the effects of natural variability on the ocean and climate change. There is a limited amount of observational data available for AMOC studies, so it is important that we have ongoing monitoring efforts to obtain long records of what is happening.
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Another tool that can help us better understand the system is machine learning. Many people in the community talk about the possibility of using machine learning to help connect data and models, and find out where the models can be improved based on the data collected from the ocean. That is a very interesting field.
The Atlantic convection (AMOC) drives warm surface water in high latitude regions. The water is then exposed to strong winds and cold air temperatures, causing it to become colder and denser. This cold, dense water enters the deep ocean and is then pumped back south at depth, creating a conveyor belt. (Photo by Eric S. Taylor, © Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute)
Is the AMOC showing a weakening or strengthening trend, and what do you hope to see in the future?
A century, and this was reflected in the latest IPCC report on climate change. In my view, the system is still on a smooth slope and we have not seen the rapid decline that some models suggest. However, it will probably go down eventually. But how much is still a big question.
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One thing I can guarantee is that the main drivers of AMOC changes over the next 10 years will be different than they will be in 100 years. The biggest change in the next decade will be the natural changes in the oceans. But looking to the next century, climate change is likely to be the biggest indicator.
However, we must continue to study the basic components of this important system and how different factors work to increase or decrease its strength.
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