21.80 An Hour Is How Much A Year
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21.80 An Hour Is How Much A Year
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Wasan Kadhim Saad 1 2, * Ibraheem Shayea 2 Bahar J. Hamza 1 Hafizal Mohamad 3 Yousef Ibrahim Daradkeh 4 and Waheb A. Jabbar 5, 6
Istanbul Technical University (ITU); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering; Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering; Istanbul 34467 Turkey
Pdf] Improving The Efficiency Of Multistage Production Of Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid
Department of Computer Engineering and Networking; Wadi Addawasir College of Engineering; Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Al Kharj 11991 Saudi Arabia
Received: June 17; 2021 / Revised: July 15 2021 / Accepted: July 25 2021 / Published: July 31 2021
The massive growth of mobile phone users will deploy many small cells in the fifth generation (5G) cellular network, which will coincide with the fourth generation (4G) networks. Takeover (HO) releases and HO rates will increase significantly. Ensuring stable and reliable connectivity via user equipment mobility (UE) will be a major challenge in future mobile networks. This problem is exacerbated by using sub-optimal handover control parameter (HCP) settings that can be manually or automatically adjusted. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the impact of different HCP configurations on the performance of 5G networks. Several system alternatives have been proposed and investigated based on various HCP configurations and mobility speed scenarios. Different mobile speeds are expected to demonstrate the impact of several proposed system variants on 5G network performance. We performed the simulations using MATLAB software and related tools. Evaluations are based on Handover Probability (HOP); Evaluation was done in terms of Ping Pong Handover Probability (PPHP) and Outage Probability (OP). A 5G network framework was used to evaluate the proposed system scenarios. The same results show that there is a discrepancy between the results obtained by different systems. Using a lower HCP setting gives a significant improvement over a higher HCP setting for OP. At the same time, Using a low HCP setting has a significant disadvantage compared to a high HCP setting for high PPH in all mobile speed scenarios. The simulation results show that an intermediate HCP configuration can be an acceptable solution using both of these systems. This study highlighted the use of automated search engine optimization (ASO) functionality as the best solution for customer experience.
Load balancing (LB); handover (HO); Handover Control Panels (HCP); Transfer Frames (HPO); fifth generation (5G); load balancing (LB) for sixth generation (6G) networks; handover (HO); Handover Control Panels (HCP); Transfer Frames (HPO); fifth generation (5G); Sixth generation (6G) networks
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Mobile communication; The rapid growth of network diversity and three-dimensional (e.g., drones) mobile communications will require the deployment of a large number of small and large UEs to provide services, which will significantly increase the demand for mobile data. . BSs [1, 2, 3] Interference. With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) proposed a new generation of wireless networks (5G) to address many of the challenges of existing networks. However, an equally important and complementary issue addressed by 3GPP’s current standardization efforts is mobility in 5G networks. To become a viable new wireless standard worldwide, 5G must manage itself effectively and support unlimited user mobility. The methods discussed in  aim to support management efficiency by using techniques that emphasize demands based on activity management (MM). An important part of MM is HO management; This is because HO can perform network anchor point replacement while maintaining service continuity through mobility events in the existing cellular network. Therefore, effective HO management is critical as 5G networks are heterogeneous and dense.
Mobile user access and traffic load on the cellular network are unbalanced over time and often change randomly, causing uneven system cellular load. Some cells have too many UEs but are busy. Other cells have few UEs but do not fully utilize their resources. Efficient use of resources can be minimized through proper management and network development. Due to issues such as load balancing (LB) in long-term evolution (LTE) systems; Current network planning strategies have not fully addressed [8, 14, 15, 16]. In general, The conversion of some UEs from crowded cells to sparsely populated cells within overlapping cells or adjacent cell boundaries represents a possible way of LB. This is called HO or transmission. By changing the Evolved Node B (eNB) unit assigned to the UE, the load is balanced and the system performance is improved with the system overhead caused by HO. The HO procedure consumes significant system resources and the scheduled UE may experience significant system delay and performance degradation. Therefore, HO should not happen by accident. [17, 18] Furthermore, The use of mm-wave in 5G technology is a major factor affecting mobility [ 19 , 20 ]. This is because path loss increases and cell coverage decreases when mm-wave frequencies are used. The probability of HO will increase significantly; High HOF; The number of mobility problems such as PPHP impact and OP will increase.
Adoption of parameters optimization (HPO) is an important function of self-optimization network (SON). It was introduced by 3GPP to solve mobility issues in 4G and 5G mobile networks [ 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. SON offers several features such as Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO) and Load Balancing Optimization (LBO). Both functions lead to the necessary optimizations to achieve various goals along the user’s mobility and aim to dynamically increase the HCP value to overcome many HO problems. MRO was first proposed in LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) as a part of SON, which is HCP-sets. Overlap operators 
The MRO function automatically adjusts the HCP value to maintain system quality. It automatically optimizes the HCP with minimal human iteration. By adjusting these parameters to appropriate values with user traffic within cell coverage; PPHP rate and handover failure (HOF) can be reduced accordingly and the quality of service (QoS) can be improved [26, 27]. HPO functionality is presented as a key benefit for deploying 4G and 5G networks. Its main purpose is to automatically adjust HCP settings to maintain network quality. A specific objective of HPO is to detect and correct the effects of PPH and OP due to mobility. In other words, when OP or PPHP is detected HO is too early and HO is too late. As shown in Figure 1, the HPO algorithm adapts to the HCP settings. It may also be due to inefficient use of resources. System composed of redundant transfer (UHO).
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One of the key ways to improve 5G network mobility is to optimize the HCP configuration. If HCP is set to static configuration; Especially when the UE speed is incredibly high, it seriously affects the continuous connection. Therefore, it is necessary to change the HCP configuration accordingly to overcome this shortcoming. However, Manual changes will complicate system maintenance and management. As a result, HPO functionality is included as a key feature of 3GPP 4G and 5G network deployments. [28, 29] This feature automatically calculates HCP model settings based on real-time network conditions. Various studies have been conducted to address this shortcoming [11, 30 31 32 33].
There are many algorithms in the literature.
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