15.58 An Hour Is How Much A Year

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15.58 An Hour Is How Much A Year

15.58 An Hour Is How Much A Year

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By Behnam Mobaraki 1, * , Seyedmilad Komarizadehasl 2 , Francisco Javier Castilla Pascual 3 , José Antonio Lozano-Galant 1 and Rocio Porras Soriano 4

Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Av. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain

How Much Do You Need To Earn To Rent An Apartment In The Us?

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya BarcelonaTech (UPC), C/Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, ​​​​​​​​​Spain

Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha (UCLM), MAEE-UCLM Research Group, Escuela Politécnica de Cuenca, Campus Universitario, 16071 Cuenca, Spain

Department of Applied Mechanics and Project Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Av. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain

15.58 An Hour Is How Much A Year

Received: 22 April 2022 / Revised: 12 May 2022 / Accepted: 13 May 2022 / Published: 18 May 2022

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Due to high energy consumption in the building sector, assessment of the thermal performance of building envelopes is a growing concern. Recently, some on-site methods have been discussed to determine the thermal parameters of buildings. However, due to their limitations such as low accuracy, a limited number of measurements and the high cost of diagnostic tools, researchers are looking for an alternative. In this study, a new hyper-efficient Arduino transmittance meter was introduced to overcome these limitations and to determine the thermal limits of building envelopes. Unlike conventional approaches, the proposed transmission meter is based on synchronous measurements of various parameters required to estimate the transmission parameter. To verify the applicability of the discharge meter, an experimental study was conducted in which a temperature-controlled box model was thermally analyzed, and the results of the discharge meter used were compared to those captured by a commercial device. The results showed a high level of cost reduction and a low range of variation compared to the latter, thus confirming the applicability of the proposed thermal monitoring system.

HEAT; building thermal monitoring; temperature based method; energy efficiency; transmission parameter; inexpensive HEAT sensors; building thermal monitoring; temperature based mode; energy efficiency; transmission parameter; cheap sensors

Buildings waste a lot of energy mainly because of their age and poor insulation. Currently, the energy consumption of buildings contributes up to 31% of the total energy demand worldwide [1]. Since 1990, energy consumption in the construction sector in Europe has increased by an average of 1% per year. This consumption rate varies by age and geographic location. For example, in Spain, the Andalusian Energy Group announced a 4.1% increase in energy in residential buildings from 2014 to 2016 [2], while the Barcelona energy consultancy announced a 15% energy saving rate since 2000 until 2010 [3]. Major energy use in buildings goes to heating, cooling, cooking and appliances. Since 2011, approximately 81% of the energy generated for these needs has been obtained from fossil fuels [4]. The energy landscape in buildings is largely dependent on the following factors: (1) building envelopes (including roofs, basements, doors, windows and walls); according to the United States Energy Information Administration, 25% of heat loss comes from attics, 15% from floors/floors, 35% from walls, and 25% from windows/doors [5], and (2) thermal bridges (including wall). to wall, wall to door, wall to window, and wall to floor junctions) [6]. It has been said that thermal bridges in regular buildings reduce the insulation efficiency by 40% [7]. Therefore, the identification of the actual thermal parameters of building envelopes has become a major concern for building engineers [8]. Examples of thermal monitoring of various elements of a building (including walls, floors, roofs, and window glass) are given in [9]. Since windows are a major contributor to the energy sector in the building sector, finding their thermal parameters has become an essential research topic [10]. Table 1 lists previous studies conducted to obtain the transmission parameter (U-value) of different types of windows (attached to different frames) using numerical and experimental methods.

An accurate assessment of the thermal efficiency of a building is achieved by measuring the U-value. A low U-value represents a structure with better insulation. This parameter is used to estimate the annual energy loss in the building sector. Traditionally the U-value of multi-layer construction walls has been determined using a destructive method of measuring the thickness of each layer and then assigning conductivity values ​​to each layer. To achieve this, it was necessary to core the wall and add the resistance values ​​(R-value) of the individual layers. However, inferring the thermal parameters of a structure using this method leads to uncertainties in thickness measurement, and the identification of material properties that may not necessarily be related to the actual performance of the building elements. . However, this approach has been widely implemented according to the guidelines of ISO 6946. However, recent research has made a standard U-value estimation by presenting different methods such as the heat flux meter (HFM) method [ 17], heat flux meter temperature control box (TCB-HFM) [18], heat flux meter simple heat box (SHB). ). -HFM) [19], infrared thermography (IRT) method [20], and temperature-based method (TBM) [21]. An overview of the previously mentioned experimental methods that included procedures for estimating the U-value was given in [22, 23]. Figure 1 shows schematics of the mentioned methods and the necessary codes used in the literature for the evaluation of thermal parameters on building envelopes [24]. In this picture,

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Different tools are used to introduce the thermal parameters of building models according to the methods mentioned [25]. One of the main problems in the use of the current systems is the high cost of measuring devices and sensing instruments. For example, traditionally, in the HFM method, the heat flux sensors are only installed on one side of the building envelope. In fact, installing a heat flow meter on both sides of the building part can reduce the monitoring error, significantly [19]. However, due to the high cost of the required tools and budget limitations, this application is not feasible in all building energy monitoring projects [26]. Taking advantage of temperature, humidity, and air velocity sensors, Esfandiari et al. determined the optimum indoor temperature for a green building registry office to develop sustainable energy policies for tropical climates [27]. In the case of TBM, a variety of non-integrated commercial sensors have been widely used to assess the energy efficiency of buildings. Kim et al. T-type thermocouples and H. Inc._4-ch data logger are used to measure the U value, evaluate the energy efficiency, and apply the update to a house case study [28]. In fact, the TESTO equipment is one of the most popular TBM inspection systems in the market [29]. Different models of this monitoring system such as TESTO 635-2 and TESTO 635-4 [30], TESTO 435-1 [31] and TESTO 435-2 [32], are used in the literature to measure the thermal properties of buildings. celebrate Instrument costs for one measurement point using TESTO systems could range from EUR 570 to 1032, therefore, thermal analysis of structures is limited to an inadequate number of measurement points.

Our literature review showed the use of low-cost sensors as an alternative to traditional monitoring tools in building monitoring [33, 34]. A systematic literature review on the use of low-cost sensors to monitor two aspects of structural boundaries and the interior of buildings can be found in an article written by Mobaraki et al. [35]. Studies have also shown the importance of Internet of Things (IoT) to reduce cost, improve efficiency and obtain data-based maintenance services. Aiming to improve the use of low-cost monitoring devices, the integration of low-cost sensors and IoT has been proposed in the literature [36]. Examples of these studies are according to the study of indoor air quality [37], structural parameters of buildings [38], microclimate of cultural heritage monuments.

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